In this week, we have continued Project Development Process. We have studied Project Development Process in the context of architectural competitions. Architectural competitions happen in very difficult and competitive environments. We have also a guest in this week. Ziya İmren came to talk about architectural competitions and he explained his experiences on architecture. Ziya İmren is a famous architect who worked for international and national architectural offices and he has also been working as an instructor in our university.
He made a presentation about the projects he had sent to the architectural competitions. We examined many different projects. He talked about the purposes of the projects, the duration of construction. We also talked about the making of presentations and models. We have learned a lot about the preparation processes of the projects and architectural competitions.
In this week, we have continued the topic Project Development Process / Sustaining a Practice. Firstly, we have looked offers issue. A price offer is an important subject in architecture. A price offer should be presented for any professional work. It includes price, contents of the work in exchange of the started price, how the work will be carried out, excluded related works, terms and conditions. These are should be accepted while processing the work. It is necessary to avoid problems in subsequent offers.
Also we have mentioned about offers in Turkey and its standard fee. In Turkey, according to Chambers of Architects and Engineers, a standard fee is calculated for architects and engineers. Then we have looked architectural service fee and its calculation.
Another important topic was Contact. It is a legal documentation which should be used any kind of professional work. It includes the fee that will be paid in exchange of the work. It includes information about parties, contents of the proposed work in exchange of the stated price, how the work will be carried out, excluded related works and lastly terms and conditions. Contract should be signed both parties and approved by a notary to make it legal.
Then we have mentioned about approval processes. It consists of two approval : client approval and legal approval. Addition to the approvals architectural project, structural project, mechanical project, electrical project and landscape project are required.
Firstly, we talked about where an architect work. He or she can work public institutions, architecture offices, construction companies, academy or his/her own architecture office.
How to establish own office? Then we were on this issue. Firstly, establishment of own office has many legal and tax issues and it requires business organization. Also, we have talked about how prepare to get approval for a project. Firstly, we have to an address for registiration.
Then we have looked the differences and benefits of anonym and limited companies. Anonim companies are are as an corporation and limited companies are as an liability companies.
Also we talked about having own office and its requires. Firstly, the office should be registered Chamber of Architects. To be registered to Chambers of Architects is an event that protects the architecture profession.
Another topic that we talked about is Basic Tax Practices in Turkey. These are VAT (KDV), Witholding Tax (Muhtasar), Income Tax( Gelir Vergisi).
In this week, we have continued Architect’s role in society and history of the profession in Turkey. Bilge İmamoğlu was our guest again and he lectured more detail from previous week.
After the brief summary of previous week, we started with educational institutions. Education institutions are defined in a Westerns sense and it is not only educational it is considered specific practice of profession.
In all context and also modern era we have institutions and they are not only better understanding for person/student but also obtained privilege practice of profession.
Also another discussion is about profession in Late Ottoman period. We have talked that Ottoman Realization begins getting behind from other European powers and this realization is perceived in battlefield after Ottoman lose their territories. Movement of changing firstly began in military. Ottoman reformation is about their army schools and also political system/bureaucrary. They replaced their school and opened new modern administrative and science school. In 19th, art education also was become modernized with the help of Osman Hamdi. He was related to modern art in Ottoman Empire and he founded Mekteb-I Sanayi-I Nefise-I Şahane.
After the collapse of the ottoman Empire and the establishment of the new Turkish state, new universities continued to open not only İstanbul also other cities of country such as ODTÜ, KTÜ, EAÜ etc.
Architecture was also an important issue for new Turkish Republic. Because they felt that world watch Turkey and they have to make prestige building. So they tried to increase Turkish architects but they could not wait. Old generation architects continued making building in the country. Also foreign architects such as Ernst Egli came Turkey and trained next generation in Turkey. He asked reform the academy to change the way of Ankara look. Ernst Egli, Bruno Taut these people are excited because they were in a revolution and innovation. They were important leaders in architectural subject in the first years of Turkish Republic.
Our first subject in Profession and Practice class is about architect’s role in the society and history of the profession in Turkey and Bilge İmamoğlu was our guest.
Firstly, we started with etymology of some words such as profession, professional, professionalism. Also we discussed ‘meslek’ in Turkish. This Arabic word ‘meslek’ comes to mean a route, spiritual action.
Also another discussion is about why architecture is different from other professions in terms of client/ customer. We all know that architects have client not customer. Because an architect does not sell product or something like that. They produce a labor according to their and their client’s desires. However, this debate led us to the importance and awareness of education. All jobs are not a profession because all occupations may not need to be educated but architects must have. That’s why educational foundations exist and they provide good training to people who contribute to the development of their professions.
Also we talked that professions should have a professional organization. For example ‘Chambers of Architects’ creates a bridge between society, government and profession and architect’s rights started to defend thanks to Chambers of Architects organization.
To sum up, we discussed about architectural profession in history and must and needs in manner of architecture.